Home by Christmas: The Illusion of Victory in 1944 (Contributions in Womens Studies)

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  1. The "New Woman" Revised
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He was, for a brief time, a singer with a popular music band. He did his undergraduate work at Hunter College and has a Ph. He was a faculty member in the School of Communications at the University of Illinois. He joined UCSD ten years later. At UCSD he served as Chair for three years; was active on many committees and since retirement in was on the advisory group for the Theatre and Dance Department. I got my Ph. UCPress published it unchanged in and After year lecturing at Berkely, my first ladder job was at the University of Illinois which gave me tenure in While there I began studying and writing on youth and was eventually given a large grant by NIMH for field research on child rearing in Hippie communes.

That research produced several Ph. In a collection of my essays was published. In the late 70s I was Editor of Contemporary Sociology. At San Diego I chaired the committees of several first class Ph. Ds some mediocre ones too and continued writing lots of reviews and review-essays. I retired in and don't do much sociology anymore though I continue to write a lot, mostly not for publication.

Berkeley shaped my way of thinking by its theoretical diversity which prevented me from ever becoming a partisan of a particular "school of thought. I doubt that "my" sociology has shaped the world in any way. The poet Auden is often quoted as saying "poetry makes nothing happen" an exaggeration of course, which makes it quotable. Sociology also seldom makes anything happen, maybe because its structural way of thinking is deeply offensive to American individualism which is why economics which knows perhaps even less than we do has become the dominant social science.

He had been on the faculty at the University of Colorado Boulder. He was promoted to associate professor and then full professor during his tenure. He chaired the department from to He also taught theory and social organization, both at the graduate and undergraduate level. He always had a group of students, both undergraduates and graduates, who followed him around and who were greatly influenced by him. He was an imposing figure. He could talk on and on about many topics, always giving an insightful analysis, even when discussing baseball statistics!

He retired in at the age of 70 and died in Los Angeles in at age Alex was extremely bright, very well read, a macro sociologist in the best tradition of those graduating from the sociology department at Berkeley in those days. He knew history, read history and combined his historical knowledge with the sociological perspective. In that sense, he was I would guess a product of the Teggart-influenced department at Berkeley. Alex did not publish much, but took his passion and considerable erudition into the areas union organizing and politics, especially his involvement over the years with the Democratic Socialists of America.

He was a close friend of Michael Harrington, for example. He helped organize the first faculty union on the campus. He was one of the original seven members of the founding AFT chapter. Garber was interested in both the professionalization of faculty and the unionization of faculty. For him this was not a contradiction. Through professionalism faculty gained a voice in running the university in ways they thought were best for students and for themselves, and through unionization faculty gained support for increased resources such as graduate TA's, travel money, assigned time for research, etc.

When I came to CSU Sacramento in as a young man just out of graduate school, it was the first time in my life that I was in a position to interact with faculty members as a peer. Alex was older and wiser. I learned a great deal from him, as he was one of my early mentors. My Ph. D was preceded by an M. My first teaching position was at the University of Hawaii, for ten years, and then Northern Illinois University, in DeKalb, for the next 16, including a stint as department chair.

I retired in , and live in Alpine County, on the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada mountains, about 40 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe. The county has the smallest population in the state, about 1,; our local community, Woodfords, has some residents. My perspective was shaped by my experiences as a child in the Great Depression, which included observing a broker negotiating with people who would return to sell their gold fillings and crowns, after removing them from their mouth; working the swing shift as a turret lathe operator in the industrial part of Chicago while attending classes during the day, and participating in the labor movement in the places where I lived.

Berkeley's radical groups and activities influenced a socialist orientation. Classes with Herbert Blumer and Tamotsu Shibutani, especially Blumer's social movements work, suggested ways of achieving change to improve people's lives. Because of a talent in art I began at Berkeley as an art major. However, the realization that few newspapers would appreciate work highly critical of capitalism led me to abandon that goal. The Berkeley milieu encouraged a reorientation, and a key influence which eventually led to graduate work in sociology was one of Marty Lipset's classes.

While a Ph. D candidate at Berkeley I was president of the sociology graduate students association and one of the founders and first editor of the Berkeley Journal of Sociology. My main interest continues to be stratification and class, and was reflected in my teaching and research, with special concern for the underprivileged. As a faculty member and citizen I have tried to apply sociological knowledge to improve conditions in academe and the community.

I was politically active in DeKalb as well as in Alpine County upon retirement. In Alpine, as an elected member of the county school board, I was responsible for establishing a voting district containing most of the county's Native Americans. For years none was on the school board, even though a quarter of the population was Native American as were half the students.

For many years I was a board member of the county arts commission, and presently am on the boards of the historical society and the Alpine County Democratic Central Committee. Thus, in a sense, my interest in art, sociology, and politics has come full circle. Arlene Kaplan Daniels, whose colorful, witty, and generous presence enlivened the field of sociology, died in her sleep on January 29, at the age of As a young girl, Arlene Kaplan moved with her family from New York City to Los Angeles, where her parents owned a small natural foods store.

She majored in English but turned toward sociology after taking a course with Tamotsu Shibutani. With his encouragement, she entered the Berkeley sociology graduate program in and completed her Ph. Eliminate the middleman! At that time, Arlene observes, the male model appeared to be the only pathway available; in fact, she was the only woman in her cohort to complete the Ph. During her graduate school years Arlene met her future husband, Richard Daniels, in a carpool to the opera; they married and settled on the Peninsula, where he worked in hospital administration.

The Berkeley faculty helped male students find jobs, but as a woman, Arlene was on her own, in part because some of the faculty began to see her as a housewife. She kept her connection to sociology alive by doing research supported by grants and contracts. She joined other faculty who supported the student strike over demands for Black studies and ethnic studies programs and, as a result, she was denied tenure.

She and others wrote a book, Academics on the Line , about this experience. Devastated by losing her academic job, Arlene returned to the world of grant hustling. Thus began what Arlene later described as her second professional and career conversion. I felt rage at what I had endured and terrible sorrow for all that had hampered me.

I resolved to help younger women, to protect them against the systematic frustration and neglect that I had experienced. Arlene also became a consummate mentor, reaching out to women sociologists everywhere. She offered advice, wrote references, edited papers, stayed in touch, and connected people to one another. The broad-brimmed hats Arlene wore, with flair, to professional meetings became a signature of her presence, taking up space like umbrellas that invited us to come in out of the rains of competition and hostility that too often dampen academic lives.

She flourished there, teaching, mentoring Ph. Colleagues there and elsewhere comment on her talent not only for getting things done, but also for making meetings fun. She also used humor to demystify the powerful. Once, according to her colleague, Rae Moses, the Organization of Women Faculty met in an imposing hall with oil portraits of the former Presidents of Northwestern. Arlene entered the room and threw her coat over one of the portraits. The other women did the same, and the meeting began with laughter.

Arlene Daniels relished friendship and food; she and her beloved Richard regularly went to the opera and made the most of travel in Europe. After she retired from Northwestern in , she moved back to California and taught part-time at her alma mater. Richard Daniels died last April. Arlene Daniels enriched the lives of those who knew her, across generations; she fought for social justice and opened many doors for others; and she built organizations that continue to do good work.

Gifts in her memory can be sent to the Arlene Kaplan Daniels Fund, an award for graduate students doing research on gender. Or donate online at www. Daniels obituary. UC Berkeley was a terrific opportunity in the late 40's. I came to Berkeley, to get away from home. I was poor, but it only cost twenty - five dollars a semester.

As an undergraduate English major, I stumbled into graduate school through my admiration for Tamotsu Shibutani. Fortunately, a characteristic of the department at that time was benign neglect. You prepared to take the exams anyway you wished, with the list of great books of sociology as your guide. But I made a happy landing at Northwestern University in l as a full Professor where I spent the next twenty years. I found I could use what I had learned, primarily from Shibutani and Blumer, especially abut the Chicago School, but also from Selvin, Bock and Nisbet, in my research and teaching.

I made my way in professional circles as editor and President of Social Problems, as council member and secretary of the American Sociological Association and as a founder and then president of Sociologists for Women in Society. I valued my colleague and the opportunity to work with graduate students and produce PhDs at Northwestern.

I produced a modest canon, using the qualitative and analytic methods learned in graduate school, to study the field of occupations and professions, and, the place of women in work. I came to Berkeley first as an undergraduate in , after doing three years in Forestry at Oregon State College now University in Corvallis.

In those first three years, I found myself becoming more interested in people than in trees. But apparently the powers that were wanted to win that war, so they sent me to France. I served out my term, met a fine French woman who became my wife, and then on discharge, won a Fullbright Fellowship to study in Copenhagen. Organizational sociology had got into my blood. In , with French wife, a new baby and University of Copenhagen degree, we returned to Berkeley to resume graduate studies.

Those were heady times. All of us had been out between undergraduate and graduate studies, and some before, mostly in some kind of protest movement. Friedland, Stinchcombe, Alford, Blauner, Daniels and many others were part of that cohort. Someone mentioned benign neglect.

The "New Woman" Revised

That was certainly the faculty orientation toward us at those times. If there were brown bags, we students organized them. If there was something for those fine visiting professors like Rene Koenig, we students organized it. Faculty had offices without names on their doors. We could see them 2 hours a week in the 'bull pen' where open desks found them at obligatory 'office hours. Four of us accidentally formed a 'sub-seminar' at the beginning of one of Shibutani's classes. Bill Friedland, Dorothy Anderson now Mariner , Ernest Landauer and I fell in together and met regularly every Wednesday evening for the rest of our studies.

We taught each other a great deal; I wonder if it was more or less than we learned from our professors. They did inspire and they imparted knowledge, but it was our peers who provided a far more fundamental kind of intellectual sustenance. On graduation I was fortunate to receive a four-year post-doctoral grant with the Institute of Current World Affairs.

This was primarily the work of Wolfram Eberhard, who seems now in retrospect to have been the only professor even thinking about students' next steps. By this time my wife and I had a second child and we spent the next four years steeping ourselves in Southeast Asia and having a third son. I was hired sight unseen and became one of Michigan's 13 new assistant professors in Michigan proved to be something of an antithesis to Berkeley. There, we were roughly graduate students left to fend for ourselves. There were three teaching Assistantships and one department fellowship.

At Michigan I found graduate students all supported by department grants. Faculty at Michigan entrepreneured for their students, finding foundation and government grants to support graduate students. I'm not sure which was best. At Berkeley we were all old organizers, so the lack of faculty leadership was no problem.

We organized and learned. At Michigan students were drawn in and shepherded through their studies. I see advantages and disadvantages at both ends, and have no idea how to produce a net effect. At Michigan I found a fine Sociology department, with great resources, superb colleagues, and support for whatever I wanted to do. I also found the single best university in the world to study Asia, and have been involved there ever since. I have maintained work in Southeast Asia.

This would have been impossible had I returned to Berkeley when I had an offer in Remember that then even Bendix had to leave the department due to the intense and acrimonious disputes, where, as he put it, 'there was no milk of human kindness. The Vietnam War tore Berkeley apart. At Michigan it produced a highly creative form of protest, 'the Teach-Ins.

Michigan is older, of course, and with Harvard in the 's was at the forefront of another national protest in the Anti-Imperialist League. And so I stayed, teaching courses in the sociology of economic development; taking organizational analysis into national and international development organizations, into international population planning, policies and organizations, and finally into the intricate realms of population-development environment analyses. I have continued to work in Asia, even in retirement. Berkeley gave me the joy of the sociological imagination, as we called it then; it gave be Wolfram Eberhard who led me into the rich life of Asian societies; it gave me fellow students who taught me much and have remained life long friends.

That it a heady mixture indeed. At Berkeley, my basic approach to sociology, social psychology, and social science grew out of my contact with T. My contact with Goffman and his work was also influential, even though it was many years before I felt its full effect. From Shibutani I learned the importance of integrating theory and empirical work, and of attempting to develop an integrated social science, especially combining the social and the psychological.

Later in my career, I began to understand Goffman's work in this way also, even though he himself took care not to develop these themes explicitly. The two major areas in my sociology have been the societal reaction to deviance, on the one hand, and shame and the social bond, on the other. My theoretical and empirical work on labeling has been influential in many fields and has had considerable impact on the actual treatment of the mentally ill.

In particular, my Being Mentally Ill ; was one ofthe key sources of the reform of the mental health laws of California in , and subsequently in all the other states. My work on shame and the social bond, begun in the mid's, has also been influential, particularly in two areas, protracted conflict in families and between large groups. This influence is still a work in progress, however, since it requires integration of many different approaches and perspectives. In particular, it formulates links between individual psychology, interpersonal relations, and social institutions.

Professor Tamotsu Shibutani, my dissertation adviser, invited me to work with him on a special project after I received my Ph. I began my teaching career at Ohio University. After a quarter at the U. My personal turmoils matched that of the department, which was gutted by the loyalty oath issue but resurrected by Blumer. An undergraduate course with Bock on the Idea of Progress stabilized my direction; I was not going to write the great American novel, sociology was easier.

With an equally stunning group of fellow graduate students to learn from, and Bendix MA thesis and Selznick PhD thesis as mentors, I drifted into organizational analysis because there was almost no literature to read I still am a slow reader. Berkeley student unrest broke out just as I left for my first job at Michigan; we had been the silent generation, but the leftist urges were all about me. Graduate student life at Berkeley, of course, was idyllic, compared to that of an assistant professor in the Michigan department, which encouraged me to leave after five years.

My cohort was good, but the market was even better as universities, sociology, organizations, and organizational theory grew; it was easy to be tenured, easy to move on. Berkeley encouraged my critical stance toward my field and toward society; Michigan didn't, but when I was tenured at Wisconsin I could say what I pleased and had the freedom to leave that university in protest over its repression of anti-Vietnam war activities.

Happenstance, almost a normal accident" immersed me in the Three Mile Island story and vectored my career for over a decade. But last year I finally published a cherished project on the origins of U. I was greatly influenced by the global outlook of Reinhard Bendix who wrote the forward to the publication of my thesis by UC Press.

I have been a guest lecturer at the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a symposium on modern Italy at Columbia University, and keynote speaker at a conference at Alma College. Swiss National Radio interviewed me on social change in America. I have taught courses in formal organizations, sociology of deviant behavior, social change, social theory, social structure and economic change, and political theory.

My research positions have included research assistant to Clark Kerr, one of principal investigators on the Mexican American project of patterns of work and settlement, and principal investigator of internal migration in Italy.

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My publications include several studies on Mexican Americans, and work and modernization in Italy published in different Italian and American journals. I have been a manuscript consultant for several presses and journals. I don't know if or how I have shaped the world, but I have participated in several important activities such as faculty consultant to the Scope Project of the Southern Christian Conference, statewide consultant for California Rural Poverty Projects, consultant for Dimension Films on social change, and co-founder of a UCLA faculty group to identify, encourage, and counsel high potential high school students in Watts, California which became an Academic Senate committee feeding Upward Bound programs.

Today, I spend much time renewing my guitar repertory from my former jazz musician days and writing new songs in my own special style. I have one thing left to do And then there was my plea in at an ASA session to stop ignoring the flow of money as a key to understanding organizational behavior. Wish me luck. Ida R. Hoos, a prominent critic of assessing technology solely on the basis of mathematical models that failed to take account of societal factors, died on April 24 in Boston.

She was 94 and lived in Brookline, Mass. The cause was complications of a lingering case of pneumonia, said Judith Hoos Fox, her daughter. Hoos, a sociologist, was widely recognized as an outspoken critic of systems analysis, which came to prominence after World War II. The approach used mathematical models to perform cost-benefit analyses and risk assessments on complex technologies like radar systems and military aircraft.

Hoos wrote in in the journal Technological Forecasting and Social Change. Harold A. Linstone, emeritus professor of systems science at Portland State University and longtime editor in chief of Technological Forecasting and Social Change, said Dr. Hoos was in many ways the intellectual conscience in the field of technology assessment. Linstone said. Hoos also questioned the usefulness of systems analysis when evaluating public policy.

Ida Simone Russakoff was born on Oct. Her parents were immigrants from Russia, her father a jeweler. She graduated from Radcliffe in In , she married Sidney S. Hoos, an economist. The couple later moved to Berkeley, where Mr. Hoos taught in the agricultural economics department at the University of California. Ida Hoos began to pursue her Ph. Hoos remained at the University of California as a research sociologist, first at its Institute of Industrial Relations, then at the Space Sciences Laboratory.

At the laboratory, where she was the lone social scientist, she expressed concern over the effect of satellite surveillance on individual privacy. She retired from the university in In addition to her daughter Judith, of Boston, she is survived by another daughter, Phyllis Daniels of Goldendale, Wash. In an unpublished memoir, she wrote of serving in the s on a high-level committee at the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment.

The committee had a preponderance of aerospace industrialists. On Jan. UC Berkeley was an important step in the way sociology influenced my career. My undergraduate years at Radcliffe, under the wonderful inspiration of Gordon Allport, had already provided the template to guide me. With many branches and myriad activities, it is recognized for its service to the entire community. Marriage to Sidney S. My main focus was Fannie Farmer and Dr. Spock, with Kuchen and Kinder all-important, while our two daughters grew up and Sid kept the armed forces in the far-flung theatres of war supplied.

After the war, we returned to Berkeley, Sid much honored for his service and greatly advanced on the academic ladder. A sabbatical at Harvard for Sid meant a refresher at the Pierian Spring for me. A return to ivy-clad Emerson Hall inspired me to desert Girl Scout cookie sales. Gordon Allport exhorted me: You just mustn't stay graduated. Herb Blumer smoothed all the administrative hurdles. My sister commented that if only I had titled my work 'Sex and Automation', it would have attracted more attention!

With our two daughters now 12 and 16, we took our first sabbatical abroad, this time a year for Sid under the joint sponsorship of the Ford Foundation, the Italian government, and UC. Our year in Naples was a high point. When we returned to Berkeley in September I was considering another PhD in Romance Languages, just for the fun of it but but the Institute of Industrial Relations, under Art Ross and Peg Gordon, invited me to join their research program, 'Unemployment and the American Economy' and, always interested in adjustment to technological change, I designed a study of retraining programs.

Technological advance was evident on every front. Not only the more mechanical aspects of handling data but the very process of managerial thinking were becoming subject to new concepts and theories. The 'dominant paradigm' embraced only the quantitative. What you could not count did not count. The social and human aspects were systematically avoided in the rush to be 'scientific. I can claim few, if any significant contributions to academic sociology. Institute of Industrial Relations and a subsequent book on the sociological process of Professionalization was published by Prentice-Hall, and after some futher graduate level course work in management, my career turned toward applied research and development and then into administration.

Our clients for such work included federal government agencies such as the U. Air Force projects on the organization of research laboratories and the management of scientific personnel : state agencies design of the new Department of Ecology for the State of Washington ; Indian reservations such as economic and social development programs on the Colville, Crow, and Navajo reservations and many other applied projects. After returning to California San Francisco , I became corporate manager of management development programs at Bechtel Corporation, an international construction firm.

More recently, I've served on several boards of directors of non-profit corporations. For me, the U. Berkeley graduate program in sociology provided a strong foundation for my lifelong work, especially in classical sociological theory e. The fact that sociology along with inputs from other disciplines can provide a significant foundation for practical applications in 'the world' I believe is illustrated by the variety of involvements I have had in my own life.

Laile E.

Bartlett July 23, - May 11, Laile E. Bartlett, Ph. Josiah R. Bartlett for 57 years, passed away peacefully early in the morning of May 11th in Ft. Bragg, CA. Bartlett received her B. Three early appointments presaged an eventful career: a social settlement post in the east end of London, an internship with Nat. C, and a lectureship with the League of Nations in Geneva. The first half of her sociology career was devoted to teaching on college campuses Hiram and Marietta Colleges in Ohio; and UW, Seattle and the second half to research and writing.

The most distinctive aspect of her work was her long and extensive collaboration with her husband, the late Rev. They wrote books and gave speeches together on topics of mutual interest, e. In , when Josiah stepped down from the presidency, he and Laile created an interim ministry program for their denomination. Over the next two decades they served as interim ministers in over 25 US churches.

They were regarded as models of matrimonial and professional teamwork to all who came in contact with them. Laile was a member of the Mt. Diablo Unitarian Church in Walnut Creek. In lieu of flowers, the family requests donations to the Student Conservation Assn. My biography is in some ways the reverse of the usual assumptions. In short, my Sociology Ph. More specifically, I was the Sociology instructor at two Ohio colleges three years in all and general utility instructor for three years at the University of Washington in Seattle - teaching a broad cross section of courses from Criminology to Race Relations.

I taught a summer course in this at Berkeley after getting my degree. My post Ph. Much of my writing has a Sociology of Religion orientation. My most recent manuscript, Making Sin Legal, is an overview of gambling in America. Hubert Wilhelm Oppe passed away on October 18, He was the seventh of nine children. From to he was a prisoner of war in Egypt after being captured in Italy. After the war ended, he returned to Germany. He taught himself English with a textbook in one hand and a dictionary in the other.

He met and later married Dorothy Fawkes on October 21, They had four children, all born in California. He started the social work degree program while at WTSU. He always showed a strong sense of purpose and commitment to whatever project he started. His students respected his enthusiasm and his ability to teach. Following retirement, he spent a great deal of time with his five grand-children whom he treasured. He was a very loving husband, father and grand-father. He was very supportive and proud of his entire family.

Guenther Roth, a retired professor of sociology at Columbia University, died at the age of 88 on May 18 of complications from advanced prostate cancer, according to his wife Caroline W. He was a historical sociologist and social historian, specializing in 19 th century Germany and particularly the works and lives of Max and Marianne Weber. Besides…giving us a fascinating group portrait of a successful German bourgeois merchant family. He taught at the U. He also held visiting professorships in Berlin, Heidelberg, and Mannheim. He is survived by his wife Caroline W.

A part-time graduate student in the Soc. For many of us assistants in the interdisciplinary Institute the apprenticeship nature of research was more important than disciplinary study, since we could look over the shoulders of our masters. For some of us our first teaching experience was in the Social Science Integrated Course. I document Weber's descent from one of the wealthiest Anglo-German families in the 19th century and suggest counterfactually that a stronger cosmopolitan bourgeoisie might have helped prevent the catastrophes of the 20th century.

I will publish a book on the Leo Baeck Institute website in early Edgar Jaffe, Else von Richthofen and their children: From German-Jewish assimilation through antisemitic persecution to American integration. This concerns the circle around Max and Alfred Weber and their exiled colleagues. My manuscript is based on my discovery of 1, letters in the possession of an American grandson; I have annotated these letters and arranged for their donation to the Leo Baeck Institute in New York. I resolved when I taught my first undergraduate course in sociology that I had to find a different way of doing sociology.

These experiences at Berkeley were foundational to the step I took as I became active in the women's movement three or four years after I left to start writing a sociology that would know how to begin in the actualities of people's lives. Arthur Stinchcombe, or simply Art as everyone knew him, passed away on July 3 rd.

He was 85 years old, having had a brilliant, luminescent career. He received his PhD from Berkeley in He was a distinguished member of the famous First Berkeley School of Sociology who went on to shape the discipline. He began as a mathematician, turning his mind to sociology where he made major contributions to organization theory, sociology of law, sociology of education, and economic sociology.

His books dealt with the logic of inquiry, statistical methods, social history, comparative sociology, high school rebellion, and much more. They won him countless awards. Art taught at Johns Hopkins, Chicago, Arizona and Northwestern as well as at Berkeley , chairing the department in those hot years, He will be missed by sociologists in many a place; he will be remembered for his gangly, retiring disposition, but always ready to engage with anyone on any topic; he leaves us with original contributions, impelled by his idiosyncratic, quirky, refreshing imagination.

From Margherita Larson : Art Stinchcombe was my teacher, my thesis adviser and my very dear friend for almost half a century. It is difficult for me to write something that tells both what this friendship represented —the constant surprises of his conversation and his company-- and the depth of my intellectual indebtedness. He taught me to think as a sociologist. I saw him again in October , when I entered Berkeley after solving my visa problems.

I wrote a paper to be exempted from the introductory theory-methods class, which Art and Neil Smelser taught, but I still followed the lectures. We went every other week to his house for conversation. It was fun. We shared many stories and one is indelible: there were unsolved machete attacks in Berkeley that winter but Art, who had insomnia, continued walking the streets at 3 am. One night the police stopped him. Only when he turned to his guard to ask how long the ordeal was going to be did the woman see his profile and make a negative ID!

Going back to our work and his teaching, Art was in Holland the whole year when I wrote my dissertation but he was the only mentor I could imagine. I had to send a chapter every month and, in , that meant packages and snail mail back and forth. For ever. I had not only taken from him the fundamental question of how to build trust among strangers, but also learned that sociology needs to move from micro-foundations in tangible or possible behavior to the support and reproduction of broader structures.

The radiating happiness of that marriage had made him serene and perhaps less judgmental. Six years. That was the time it took him to get to the study of formality from the amazing political economy of slavery in the Caribbean, in which he ultimately clarified the social and political foundations of freedom. Art Stinchcombe was original and profound, or profoundly original. Meeting Art inspired me to search out his many works, with important ideas typically lurking behind modest titles. But most of all, it was a pleasure to get to know Art himself. He was mildly cranky in a way that was passionate and generous about ideas and very funny.

He was profoundly egalitarian in his respect for and engagement with all, and in his many jokes at his own expense. I feel very grateful for the opportunity to have known him, even for a short while. He had such a breadth of knowledge. I learned so much from him. He was a great conversationalist. He was most logical. He made sociology a science. I learned organizational sociology from him which shaped my dissertation.

Born or Bred in Indiana

I am forever grateful. He was cynical and iconoclastic when need be and most serious and impatient with sloppy thinking — a great loss. From William C. Cockerham : This is getting freaky. Last night and this morning I was rereading Art Stinchcombe's book, Constructing Social Theories , as background and a reference for a new book I'm writing on sociological theories of health and illness and only hours later, this afternoon, I just received the notice on his passing.

I consulted Art's book often over the years, and learned much from it. I really didn't know him enough to write a tribute, but his passing is obviously a great loss to sociology. I know rereading a book published in or even citing it would be questionable by some, but there is still a lot of contemporary relevance in what Art had to say about theory construction.

From Art Stinchcombe : Dear Michael, putting your re-request for a bio together with an In Memoriam for Phil Selznick, my dissertation supervisor, has jacked up my guilt mechanism to a level that overcomes my embarrassment at tooting my own horn in as bio. The thing I have to guard against is that I think very well of myself, and when I talk about myself that comes through. Sometime during the early period I wrote a theory textbook from some of my lectures, in which setting the problem of building social theories within a positivist view of what "science" was about in a few pages generated almost all of the citations to my work, which people still quote me.

In some sense, my sociological biography stopped 40 years ago with "Constructing Social Theories". But I have tried to expand on,those few pages, and the illustrations that accompanied them, in "Theoretical Methods in Social History", and returning to Phil's influence on the substance of formal organizations and laws, "When Formality Works". I should also mention that my wife, Carol A.

I have received sad news: the passing of Robert Blauner at the age of Bob — as he always insisted on being called — was a Berkeley graduate student in the s, receiving his PhD in He became a faculty member in our department in He had a distinguished career. Bob was a man of integrity and principle in practice as well as in theory. His promotion to Full Professor was long delayed because of his outspoken criticism of the McCone Commission that investigated the Watts rebellion of In he incurred the wrath of his colleagues when he accused one of them of sexual harassment — a term that barely existed at the time.

The case became one of the early milestones in the movement against sexual violence. He was ahead of his times in other ways too. Bob retired in to spend the next 23 years doing what he always enjoyed, following baseball, playing chess and poker, above all writing his memoirs, and living a life devoted to his wife, the filmmaker, Karina Epperlein. He died of a kidney disease which had afflicted him for several years.

From Yiannis Gabriel. Bob was a man of great integrity, compassion and intelligence. I attended two of his graduate classes and he was one of the members of my dissertation committee. More importantly, he sponsored several courses organized and taught at Berkeley by graduate students like myself, putting his signature on various documents to satisfy University of California bureaucracy. Bob also put his signature on numerous 'nearly' truthful statements that kept me out of the Greek army at the time.

Bob's academic work concentrated on the sociology of work, race relations and what was at the time an embryonic field of death studies. Yet, when Braverman did something similar ten years later using the concept of deskilling, it proved to be a major breakthrough in neo-Marxist studies of the labour process. In race relations, Bob theorized the concept of internal colonialism, long before postcolonial studies had emerged as a discipline. Again he antagonised Marxists who had, until the s, tended to see racism through the prism of 'dividing the working class'.

Yet, I can think of no greater advocate of race equality and equal opportunities in the US than Blauner, as evidenced by his stinging critique of official report on the Los Angeles riots in "Whitewash over Watts". I last saw Bob in the summer of As ever, he was full of life and ideas. What I will always remember about Bob is that he embodied the ideal of a scholar who scorned to differentiate between the personal and political long before it became a cliche.

He not only brought his politics into every aspect of his life but he refused to shelter his personal life from the wider political arenas, making himself vulnerable and being unwilling to cover up contradictions and dilemmas. In particular, he refused to shelter himself from Berkeley graduate students who, at least in the 70s, did not have a great deal of respect for the intellectual and political qualities of the faculty.

From Larry Rosenthal. I came late to knowing Bob. There were some meals together. With Karina.

Always lovely. He sent me some autobiographical writings. They were profound and moving. I answered him at some length. There was now a bond between us. We saw something of ourselves in one another. I got invited to his poker game. It was a table full of basically sweet and aging men. But, as poker will have it, an individual trait became exaggerated.

While the poker players have long been on to this, it might come as a surprise those who were not at the table. Bob was the banker. Always the banker. He insisted on it. He brought the chips. He counted them out. Collected our greenbacks. You get cleaned out? Bob will sell you more chips. At the end, cashing in the chips, meticulous, almost fussy, about the final quarters coming true.

Was this a pole away from the labor organizer and the theorist of alienation? Somehow it never seemed that way. From Leon Wofsy. I had great respect for Bob. Actually, when I came to Berkeley in and met Bob, he reminded me that we had come together in the Labor Youth League in the s. However his views developed and changed over the years, he was always unwavering in integrity and principles. From Colin Samson. Bob was one of my teachers. He taught me about oral history; its techniques and its importance as a vehicle for affirmation of people who are so often ignored and dismissed.

His classes were open, convivial and he was always generous to everyone. How could it be anything else? I will always remember Bob as a person who made me think "I want to be like you". Rest in Peace. From Richard Apostle. My sincere condolences. Along with another faculty member, he was very much responsible for my navigating a system which remained a puzzle to me for decades. Also, I very much appreciate the opportunity to come and visit you both a few years back. It meant a lot to be in your graceful presence.

From Robert Kapsis. My interest and curiosity about the black experience continues to this day. Thanks Bob. From Michael Lerner. Bob Blauner was an amazingly wonderful human being, as you know Karina. He wrote for Tikkun and my friendship with him goes back to the 60s when he was one of the most reliable faculty people we students could count on when the administration would attempt to squelch our activism. I felt he never got the recognition he deserved, particularly for his work against racism.

From Rivka Polatnick. As a sociology graduate student in the '70s and early '80's, I had the pleasure to take courses with Bob and was delighted by his combination of scholarly excellence, political and moral commitments, engaging teaching style, and humanism and kindness. When it came time to choose a dissertation chair for my study of late '60s Black and White Women's Liberation pioneers, my mentor Arlie Hochschild was on leave and not taking on any new dissertations.

I was very happy to have the fine alternative of asking Bob to be my chair, and he responded with enthusiasm. He guided me through the process with skill and warmth, and I am indebted to him. He was very helpful in writing me letters of recommendation, and my own teaching incorporated his scholarly work and pedagogical style. I will remember him with great respect and fondness. From Nicole Biggert. Bob did not like the formality of a classroom but when it came time to talk about ideas that he cared about the passion came through and there was no better teacher.

One issue that really hurt him deeply was the criticism he faced as a white man who had dared to write about race in America. He was caught in a political conundrum and allowed us to talk about this personally painful issue as a way to help us to learn and to sharpen our understanding as sociologists. I always appreciated his generosity of spirit. From Susan Takata. I was so saddened by the passing of Bob Blauner. I was at Cal between and finally obtaining my PhD in sociology in I took several of his grad courses including the early beginnings of a gender course that you mentioned below.

When I first met Bob, he had this gruff exterior but as I got to know him, he was actually a very nice guy, and a very caring teacher. After receiving my Ph. I kept in touch with Bob. We exchanged Christmas cards each year. I will miss Bob. He truly cared about his students. From Lois Benjamin. For forty-nine years, I have known Bob as my professor, advisor, colleague, and friend.

His lectures and the attendant discourses were animated and civil. A brilliant scholar, Bob was at the leading edge of academics who challenged the conventional analysis and wisdom of race relations in United States in the late sixties. His fresh, penetrating writings and lectures were influential in shifting the focus in race relations from prejudice and discrimination to institutional racism. Additionally, he was instrumental in deepening the analysis of the construct of internal colonialism.

Bob encouraged me to use the work as a basis for my dissertation. At that point, he became my academic advisor and mentor. Later, he chaired my dissertation committee. Bob always wrote in a clear, elegant style and he encouraged his students to write likewise and to shun turgid academic prose.

After receiving my doctorate, Bob and I remained in contact throughout the years. From Michael Kimmel. When I arrived at Berkeley in , Bob Blauner had already influenced me twice. I'd read Alienation and Freedom a book title that I'm sure most of us wish we'd thought of! But the article, "Internal Colonialism and Ghetto Revolt" blew my mind when I read it in my first year at another grad school. Here was the analysis that I thought I was looking for - that applied the analysis of our imperialist adventures in Vietnam to the maintenance of an internal colony here at home.

When I finally met him, I was struck by the combination of his humility and his enthusiasm. He listened to people, cared about them, and was astonishingly self-effacing about his own stature in the field. My research took me towards others in the department and in the history department , and my dissertation about 17th century French tax policy had less than nothing to do with Bob's move towards gender and masculinity studies.

His interest was only secondarily academic, spurred by years of analysis and serious soul searching. And the way that Bob fused the personal and the analytic in both his teaching and his research was the third, and most significant way, he influenced me. He became a friend and a mentor, especially after I had begun my career. Who else would call himself a proud Mama's Boy?

I'll miss him. From Paul Joseph. Bob played a major part of my graduate studies at Berkeley. This was in the early s, his book Racial Oppression in America had just come out, and the department was continually caught up in many of the national and Bay Area developments occurring at the time. I know that many of my peers were influenced by his views, and inspired by his presentation of what sociology could be. We became and remained friends. He played softball in the Friday afternoon game behind Barrow Hall.

We played tennis together and I joined him and other faculty in a monthly poker game.

Bob was very personable and approachable; he served as a most valuable mentor to a young person navigating the entry points of the sociological profession. We had a meal together whenever I visited and I followed the progression of his interests through his other books on race, masculinity, and eventually the loyalty oath. I especially remember his voice: strong, resonant, and populist. When Bob spoke, democracy seemed to carry in its timbre.

From Mike Messner. Though I'd already known him by reputation for several years, I first met Bob at the department orientation for new grad students in the Fall of Several professors and continuing grad students addressed our incoming cohort. Most speakers spun self-congratulatory platitudes about the greatness of the Berkeley sociology department, so it really impressed me that when Bob spoke, he encouraged us to try to construct balanced lives while in grad school by exploring the beautiful Bay Area and spending time in the lovely parks in the area.

And I wasn't disappointed. Some say that this was the first such course taught in the nation. Whether it was or not, it was hugely successful. Quite simply, Bob was the best large-group discussion facilitator I have ever seen. As a facilitator, Bob had the ability to interweave various strands of a group discussion and then present it back to the group in the form of an analytical question. His adaptation of the string galvanometer made it possible to accurately measure variations in electrical potential caused by heart muscle contractions and to record them graphically.

Inventor-entrepreneur Clarence L. Elder was born in in Georgia. As a young man, he decided to pursue a career in the field of electronics. In a career spanning over 40 years, Gertrude Belle Elion invented some of the 20th century's most significant lifesaving drugs. Today's cellular communications industry would not be what it is without the contributions made by Richard H. Frenkiel and Joel S. Years before personal computers and desktop information processing became commonplace or even practicable, Douglas Carl Engelbart had invented a number of interactive, user-friendly information access systems that we take for granted today: the computer mouse, windows, shared-screen teleconferencing, hypermedia, groupware, and more.

Born in , Epperson was raised in San Francisco. One winter night in , he mixed a soft drink made with soda water powder and water — a popular concoction at the time. He left a stirring stick in it and mistakenly left it on the porch overnight. He was a born artist, gifted at the drawing board, and his talent in this area eventually led him to explore engineering.

He and his brother, Nils, were highly intelligent and were noticed by colleagues of their father, Olof, when they were teenagers. They were asked to assist in designing a canal, a project for which Olof served as a director of blastings. By age 14, John was a topographical surveyor.

For many people living in the United States, the bicycle is considered a recreational vehicle, or perhaps an occasional mode of personal transportation. Those in developing or Third World nations around the globe, however, see the bicycle as an indispensable tool not only for getting around, but also for carrying cargo.

He realized that the device's usefulness was limited in many situations, despite the benefit of it being an inexpensive, efficient, and environmentally safe and clean means of transport. Robert Everett and Jay Forrester were pioneers in the development of early digital computer equipment during the years many consider to be the most productive decade for computing technology: Ole Evinrude , inventor and entrepreneur, founded an industry and managed a thriving company while remaining one of America's most honest and generous businessmen. Philo Farnsworth conceived the world's first all-electronic television at the age of By the time he died, he had earned over U.

The South Africa native, who was born without a left hand, had been using a traditional shaving fork to muck out the stables at the National Equine Defence Society in Birkin, U. James Fergason holds over U. George Ferris conceived, designed, and built an engineering marvel, which astonished the world at its debut and became a mainstay of American recreation. Physicist Dr. Robert E. Fischell has earned nearly U. Thousands of poor citizens of African nations such as Kenya have been able to transform their lives and build successful small businesses because of the ingenious inventions and non-profit support organizations created by Martin Fisher.

She received a BA from D'Youville College, where she graduated as class president and valedictorian, and continued her studies at Syracuse University. There, she completed an MS in inorganic physical chemistry in Inspired by an offhand comment from her father, Abigail M. Fleck invented a new, quicker, and healthier way to cook bacon and founded a company to sell her product. No scientific story illustrates the power of luck coupled with ingenuity quite like the tale of the discovery of penicillin. The scientist credited with the invention of this groundbreaking drug, Alexander Fleming, was born on August 6, in Ayrshire, Scotland.

A bright student, Fleming worked in a shipping office for several years before returning to school to pursue a degree in medicine. He earned his MD, with honors, from St. He then worked for Almroth Wright's research team there, where he developed a strong interest in bacteriology. Metallurgist and inventor Merton C. Flemings was born on Sept. He first became intrigued with science in high school, inspired by a physics teacher.

His research has focused, for more than 50 years, on ways to produce, recycle, and improve products through understanding and applying the underlying science of the materials those products are made of. Most people credit Henry Ford with inventing the automobile. The fact is he didn't — such a complex machine is the result of a combination of technologies developed by many people over time. He did, however, invent the moving assembly line, which revolutionized the way we make cars and how much they cost.

When Sally Fox first saw brown cotton seeds and lint, she had no idea she was about to become a pioneer. But he was much more than a statesman. He was a man of letters, a publisher, a philosopher, a scientist, and the first major American inventor. Innovation can come in many forms, including tasty, creamy, edible ones. In , organic chemist John E.

Franz developed a new class of herbicide that allows for the destruction of difficult perennial and annual weeds without danger to nearby vegetation, soil, or animals, even bacteria. But before Ermal Cleon Fraze came up with his invention of the pop-top aluminum can, this was impossible.

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Fraze changed that by coming up with a way to include an opening tool directly on the can itself. A distinguished chemist and promoter of science, Helen Murray Free invented a number of tests that revolutionized certain types of analyses in the laboratory and diagnoses at home. But he could not have created this now ubiquitous item without the previous invention of his colleague, Spencer Silver. Richard Buckminster Fuller, New England transcendentalist and futurist inventor, sought to harmonize technology with nature. His most famous attempt is the geodesic dome. Henry Ford did not invent the automobile; Samuel Morse did not invent the telegraph; nor did Robert Fulton invent the steamship.

But like Morse and Ford after him, Fulton used his insight and energy to turn a challenge of engineering into a large-scale commercial success, thereby transforming the world. Who wants it? With my jaw set hard I was determined that there had to be a better way! Dennis Gabor was born in Budapest, Hungary on June 5, As a youngster, he was interested in the inner workings of the things around him.

At age ten, he designed a type of airplane-like carousel, and his parents helped him attain a patent for it. By the time he was a teenager, he had a small laboratory in his house where he worked on his own experiments in photography, radiation, and wireless x-rays and developed a passion for physics. Among Ashok Gadgil's many inventions is a water disinfection system, which can provide healthy drinking water to at-risk populations for about seven cents per person per year.

Nuclear physicist Hans Geiger, whose surname is known all over the world for his invention of the radioactivity measuring device known as the Geiger counter, was born Johannes Wilhelm Geiger in Neustadt-an-der-Haardt, Germany on September 30, He was one of five children born to Wilhelm Ludwig Geiger, a philosophy professor at the University of Erlangen.

Since its invention and popularization, the skateboard has become a standard item of equipment for young Americans. Today, with skateboarding as popular as it has ever been, the skateboard can be seen as an icon of youthful energy and adventurousness. Heinz Joseph Gerber was born in in Vienna, Austria. By the age of eight, he was building motors and radios. By the time of his death in , Gerber had earned more than U. Global Positioning System technology, or GPS, has in recent years become a part of mainstream society, available to individual consumers in the form of handheld GPS devices, as well as in vehicles like farm tractors, helicopters, trucks, and automobiles.

This technology, which has the ability to pinpoint specific locations on the planet with near-perfect accuracy, was originally developed in the s for military applications and has since been deployed in navigation, national defense, air traffic control, search and rescue, and environmental research. Gilbert was one of the most multi-talented inventors of all time. With many fields open to his ingenuity, he chose to educate and entertain children through toys. Lillian Moller Gilbreth, the mother of 12 children, had good reason to improve the efficiency and convenience of household items.

At the last turn of the century, King Gillette founded what would become a corporate giant, based on a simple yet essential invention: the safety razor with disposable blades. He stayed there until , when he received a telephone call from Alexander M. Robert Hutchings Goddard was an inventor and visionary who, more than anyone else, paved the way for the Space Age.

Inventor-entrepreneur Anita Goel is bringing medicine, physics, and nanotechnology together in technologies that she hopes will begin to change the way diagnostics are performed in areas as broad as healthcare, water and crop testing, and food, blood, and air screening. Rube Goldberg was an inventor of the absurd, a social critic who used cartoons to point out the plight of people caught up in an overly complicated world.

Peter Carl Goldmark was born in Budapest, Hungary in He studied physics at the University of Vienna, where he received his BS in and his PhD in , and began his career working for a radio company in England. Through years of research and a single stroke of luck, Charles Goodyear saved the doomed rubber industry by inventing a process that made the material durable and resilient enough for industrial use. Breathable yet waterproof. When it comes to fabric, these two qualities would seem to be at odds with one another, and indeed they were, until The material is used in a wide and growing variety of products from outdoor equipment and apparel to insulation, sealants, and medical implants.

Gordon Gould was born in New York City in As a child, he idolized Thomas A. Edison and other inventors, with the encouragement of his mechanically-minded mother. Later, Gould himself would conceive and design one of the most significant inventions of the 20th century: the laser.

For over thirty years, Meredith C. Gourdine was a pioneer researcher and inventor in the field of electrogasdynamics. Typists who are prone to making mistakes when using old-fashioned typewriters or word processors have Bette Nesmith Graham to thank for creating one of the most simple, yet lifesaving inventions in all of office-supply history: Liquid Paper.

One afternoon in the late s, he was inspired by a mistake to invent one of the most significant medical devices of all time: the implantable cardiac pacemaker. Leonard Greene holds patents on dozens of inventions in aviation technology — most notably, a device that warns pilots when they are in danger of experiencing a deadly aerodynamic stall. To grow up in Maine is to know cold weather.

Maine native and lifelong inventor Chester Greenwood helped to alleviate one of the most persistent of discomforts associated with brutal winter weather with his invention of earmuffs in A Gallup poll found that two thirds of American teenagers would like to found a company. K-K Gregory, a ninth-grader from Bedford, Massachusetts, has been living that dream. She became an inventor-entrepreneur in , at the age of Computer scientist Irene Greif is one of a growing group of American women making important contributions in a typically male-dominated field.

Greif, who was a mathematics standout at Hunter College High School in New York as a teenager, was the first woman to earn a doctorate in electrical engineering and computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT in She has also served as a faculty member there, appointed in as a principal research scientist. Sydney, Australia native Saul Griffith has created technology that will simplify the method for producing eyeglass lenses. This, he hopes, will eventually allow those around the world who could previously not afford eyeglasses to obtain them via the low cost and improved availability this technology will provide.

The nonpareil pioneer of wireless telecommunications is Al Gross. In , he invented the walkie-talkie. In , he invented the telephone pager. His other inventions include the basics of cordless and cellular telephony. Forward-thinking individuals have begun to create a variety of innovative, alternative forms of transportation to help remedy the situation. The everyday actions of any office worker undoubtedly involve making a photocopy.

Though we take this seemingly simple, yet extremely helpful, time-saving operation for granted, only through the ingenious work and perseverance of people like Robert W. Gundlach are we able to so carelessly rely on the technology. The printing press, invented by German goldsmith Johann Gutenberg in , has been called one of the most important inventions in the history of humankind.

For the first time, the device made it possible for the common man, woman, and child to have access to books, which meant that they would have the unprecedented ability to accumulate knowledge. While Jones revolutionized food transportation, Hall invented ways to preserve the foods themselves. In , Robert Hall created a revolutionary type of laser that is still used in many of the electronic appliances and communications systems that we use every day.

Eight months after graduating from Oberlin College in with a bachelor's degree in chemistry, Charles Martin Hall invented an inexpensive method for the production of aluminum. When she realized her device had a much shorter memory span than she had hoped for around ten minutes rather than ten years , she assumed her work had all gone to waste.

In , Ruth Handler invented something that became so quintessentially American as to be included in the official "America's Time Capsule," buried at the celebration of the Bicentennial in the Barbie doll. Anyone who uses a computer regularly should know how important it is to pay attention to body and wrist position in order to avoid excessive strain. William Haseltine — biophysicist, professor, inventor, and entrepreneur — has been a leader in the international effort to use human genes to battle disease, especially AIDS.

The ubiquitous handheld organizer known as the PalmPilot was first conceived in Its inventor, Jeff Hawkins, initially set out to conduct research related to the function of the human brain. He was interested in the ways in which the brain acquires and stores information, which, in essence, develops intelligence. Walter Lincoln Hawkins was born on March 21, He was orphaned as a young child and was raised by his sister.

He faced a difficult upbringing in a world where it was difficult for African Americans to find adequate encouragement in education and at work. When Andrew Heafitz was a child, family members could tell by his passion for rockets, airplanes, Legos, and building toys that he was a natural engineer. By the time he was in junior high school, he was creating gadgets, including a high-speed camera made of balsa wood that he flew in a model rocket. He applied for and received his first U. In high school, he was a Science Talent Search Finalist. Liquid crystal scientist George H. Heilmeier was born in in Philadelphia.

Soon after graduation, he joined RCA Laboratories, where his work on various electronic and electro-optic devices led to his promotion to Head of Solid State Device Research in Beulah Louise Henry was born in and was dubbed "Lady Edison" in the s. She earned 49 patents, but her inventions number around Her first patent was granted in for a vacuum ice cream freezer.

Later, Henry invented an umbrella with a set of different-colored snap-on cloth covers In , Henry invented the "Protograph" for use in businesses. The device made four typewritten copies of documents at a time without carbon paper. She also created "continuously-attached envelopes" to aid in mass mailings For children, Henry invented "Dolly Dips," which were soap-containing sponges and the "Miss Illusion" doll, a doll whose eyes could change color and close as if in sleep He was interested in art as a youngster, and he first believed that he would pursue a career as an artist.

But his natural talent for math and physics won him a scholarship to the University of Toronto, where he and fellow student Albert Prebus would later build the world's first practical electron microscope. Chuck Hoberman is all at once an inventor, artist, engineer, and architect, whose expandable, collapsible structures are both practical and pleasing to the eye. Before the invention of the microprocessor, computers used to take up acre-sized rooms. Different integrated circuit chips were needed for every application that a computer performed.

The relatively inexpensive and compact central control systems that we know today didn't exist until Ted Hoff invented the microprocessor. Delicious and satisfying, milk and milk products contain a variety of important nutrients such as calcium and riboflavin, which are important for good health. However, millions of people are unable to enjoy a cold glass of milk because they suffer from a condition known as lactose intolerance.

These individuals lack an enzyme called lactase in their intestines that is necessary for breaking down lactose, the main type of sugar found in milk. Scientist and inventor Leroy Hood grew up in Montana. She earned a BA with honors from Wellesley College in medieval history and a PhD from Yale University in philosophy and foundations of mathematics before teaching for some years at Swarthmore College.

There she created a computerized switching system for telephone call traffic and earned one of the first software patents ever issued. When the United States of America was born on July 4, , it did not have an official national flag. However, one of the many different standards then carried by Continental troops, known as the Grand Union, can be considered the first true U.

Flag, in that it was sanctioned by General George Washington. The achievements of Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, which include, most notably, the invention of the compiler, cemented her place at the forefront of the computing revolution that began in the early s.

Trained as a mathematician, her career spanned six decades. During this time, she remained simultaneously connected with several disciplines and industries, including academia, industry, and the U. Larry Hornbeck spent nearly two decades developing a revolutionary technology that has, in recent years, begun to offer consumers the chance to enjoy some of the most sophisticated digital imagery ever available. DLP has brought crystal clear digital images to hundreds of local movie theaters via digital projection systems and to thousands of homes via high-definition television sets.

The technology has, in many ways, reset the bar for the visual quality of motion pictures and television programming. When Kristin Ann Hrabar was just nine years old, she had a simple idea for a device that solved a common problem. Her father asked her to hold a flashlight over a tight space that he was working in while he fixed a household item with a screwdriver. She thought this would have been a lot easier for both of them if the tool had a light source of its own. Brian Hubert says he never goes to sleep without a pen and notebook by his nightstand so that he can record ideas for new inventions.

He obviously had the right idea. David Edward Hughes was born in London, England in His family was musically talented — he, his sister, and his two brothers were considered prodigies, and the family performed together around the world. In , the Hughes family emigrated to the United States.

Mechanic and independent inventor Walter Hunt secured a place in American history when he invented the useful, everyday device known as the safety pin in After decades of stuffing themselves into seemingly barbaric undergarments, mostly of a corset-like nature, women around the world finally began to get fed up.

In , a New York socialite decided to do something about it. The first modern brassiere was created by Mary Phelps Jacob. A relatively recent but immensely popular addition to summertime leisure activities in the United States is the personal watercraft PWC. Such vehicles have made it possible for people from all walks of life to enjoy fast-paced recreation on the open water without the encumbrance or expense of a full-sized boat.

Robert Koffler Jarvik, inventor of the first permanently-implantable artificial heart, was born in Michigan on May 11, He demonstrated his mechanical aptitude early, having invented such useful devices as a surgical stapler and other medical tools when he was just a teenager. Physicist Ali Javan invented one of the most practical and widely used types of lasers, the gas laser. Created in , his helium-neon laser was the first to provide a continuous beam of light, making it possible to use the technology in fiber optics for telecommunications, medicine, and a variety of other scientific and consumer applications.

Listed among the ingredients of countless foods, such as salad dressing, ice cream, canned soup, and condiments, is a mysterious-sounding substance called xanthan gum. This groundbreaking product and a process for producing it in large quantities was discovered in the s by chemist Allene Rosalind Jeanes. It has since become an indispensable thickening and texturizing agent not only for foods but also for a wide range of cosmetic, automotive, and healthcare products. Patent System.

President, and the founder of the University of Virginia. But Jefferson was also an inventor with many accomplishments, including his great influence in the area of patent law. But in fact, this scientific breakthrough, also known as DNA fingerprinting, was discovered fairly recently, in , by British scientist Alec John Jeffreys at the University of Leicester, England. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, the duo who began Apple Computer in , are among the most well-known revolutionaries of the computing age. Apple continues to be one of the most popular brands of personal computing devices in the world.

Like many inventors, Charles Johnson started inventing around the time he started grade school. However, with his high school graduation approaching, he had already produced a portfolio of health and safety inventions that few young inventors can match. For years, Lonnie G. Johnson has been inventing thermodynamics systems for NASA and other organizations, but he won his greatest fame for re-inventing the squirt gun. Reynold Johnson was born in in Minnesota.

He attended the University of Minnesota, achieving his BS in education administration in He then began teaching science and math at a local high school. Frederick McKinley Jones applied the mechanical experience that he gained at work and at war to revolutionize two industries: cinema and refrigeration. In a career spanning over forty years, Howard S. Jones, Jr. The aim was to help them to feel good about their looks and begin to improve their societal status in the United States and around the world. Most of the fastening devices used in clothing today, like the shoelace, the button, and the safety pin, have existed in some form in various cultures for thousands of years.

But the zipper was the brainchild of one American inventor, namely, Whitcomb Judson of Chicago. Born in Montgomery, Alabama in , Percy Lavon Julian, the grandson of a former slave, overcame a lifetime of discrimination by becoming an internationally acclaimed inventor of synthetic man-made medicines. Charles H. Kaman has been a leading inventor and businessman in the helicopter industry for over 50 years. Inventor Dean Kamen has forged a career based on two separate but equally important goals: to improve the lives of others through technology and innovation and to promote opportunities in science, engineering, and invention to young people through education.

He succeeded in making a major improvement to a technology that has existed since the Bronze Age: bellows. Isabella Karle is a true pioneer of physical chemistry, who invented new methods, using first electron and then x-ray diffraction to study the structure of molecules. In his career of over 60 years, Eskil Karlson has produced about inventions. His most impressive efforts have converted a poison into a purifier: ozone-based sterilization systems. Computing pioneer Alan Curtis Kay, creator of the "Smalltalk" programming language, was born in in Springfield, Massachusetts.

Shortly after his birth, his family moved to Australia where they lived for a few years before moving permanently back to the United States. He learned to read by age three and gained an early appreciation for music, thanks to his mother, a musician. He would later work as a professional jazz guitarist, composer, and theatrical designer and become adept as a classical pipe organist. Anna Wagner Keichline was born in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania in One of four children, her parents encouraged her to develop her natural talent for carpentry and mechanics.

She was fortunate enough to have been given her own carpentry tools and a home workshop, and by age fourteen, she was locally known as a skilled craftswoman after winning a prize at the Centre County Fair for an oak table that she built herself. The inventor of this classic cold cereal, eaten around the world every day for nearly a century, was Will Keith Kellogg, born on April 7, in Battle Creek, Michigan.

Charles Franklin Kettering invented dozens of important devices, but he is best known as the founder of Delco, the company who brought automobiles into the Age of Electricity. A team of Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT graduate students conquered a major challenge of high-capacity optical communications by inventing a device that can splice a single signal into or out of the many that are being transmitted together along a fiberoptic line. Though little is known about the details of her life, Mary Dixon Kies has become a familiar name in U. Although he has over 60 patents to his credit, Jack Kilby would justly be considered one of the greatest electrical engineers of all time for one invention: the monolithic integrated circuit, or microchip patent 3,, The microchip made microprocessors possible, and therefore allowed high-speed computing and communications systems to become efficient, convenient, affordable, and ubiquitous.

A tiny, mechanical hand that, when closed, is no larger than a pinhead may have the potential to perform delicate tasks, such as to help physicians perform microsurgeries or to aid robots in defusing bombs. In a year career of research, education, and activism, Mary-Claire King has succeeded not only in scientific innovation but also in making the world a better place. In the consumer electronics industry, inventor Henry Kloss has achieved legendary status. While working at Acoustic Research in , Kloss and engineer Edgar Villchur created the first acoustic suspension loudspeaker, the AR This bookshelf-sized speaker could deliver deep bass sounds.

It was the first speaker of its kind, and many say it changed the industry forever. There was a time when furniture was upright and formal, when seating was relatively hard and rigid and demanding of proper posture. This was the most famous of several inventions that Knight patented at the end of the 19th century. Willem Kolff, creator of the first kidney dialysis machine, was born on February 14, in Leyden, Holland. He became interested in medicine as a child, spending a great deal of time learning from his father, Jacob Kolff, who was the director of the Tuberculosis Sanatorium at Beekbergen.

Kolff graduated from the Leyden Medical School in , and in , he received a PhD and graduated summa cum laude from the University of Groeningen. Born in Queens, New York in , Kurzweil grew up in an academic family. His grandmother was one of the first women in Europe to earn a PhD in chemistry. At the age of five, he began building his own model boats, cars, and rocket ships. He built a simple computing device when he was 12, and he also learned how to program with the help of his uncle, an engineer at Bell Labs. A pulmonary disease pioneer, he introduced the diagnostic method known as mediate auscultation and invented the device that no modern doctor can live without, the stethoscope.

Silver Screen actress Hedy Lamarr born in enjoyed one of the more memorable careers in Hollywood. Her name still ranks among the brightest lights in the history of movies. Langer is still committed to learning and discovering in chemistry. The only active member of all three U. National Academies — Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine — Langer holds patents, alone or with others, in the fields of biomedical and chemical engineering, biomaterials, and controlled drug delivery.

Chelsea knew first-hand the various paraphernalia and steps that this entailed, and she resolved to create a more efficient system. Lewis H. Latimer was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts in Along with Granville T. Woods, Latimer was one of the first major African American inventors.

He first worked as an assistant to Alexander Graham Bell. Here, he soon invented one of the most essential apparatus of nuclear physics: the cyclotron granted patent 1,, in Rather, it was a Hollywood starlet, Florence Lawrence, who created the first turn indicator as well as the full-stop signal activated by applying the footbrake. Robert S. She was 11 years old at the time. His father died when he was just five years old. He was raised by his mother, whose religious and moral beliefs fostered his interest in philosophy.

He taught himself to read Latin by age twelve and started studying Greek. This would later develop into his ability to perform difficult mathematical proofs. Jerome H. Lemelson was one of the most prolific American inventors of all time. David Lennox was born in Detroit, Michigan on April 15, He was the son of an expert railroad mechanic, and it was clear early on that Lennox had inherited his father's mechanical ability. He quickly became interested in tools and machinery and discovering how things worked.

His inventions range from mechanical to medical, but perhaps the most notable is his "Micro-Miniature Ergonomic Keypad," the world's smallest "full-size" keyboard. In the past twenty years, independent inventor Richard C. Levy has co-developed over toys and games, including one of the most popular toys of recent years, the Furby. Gilbert Newton Lewis, one of the most influential and admired scientists of the twentieth century, was a pioneer in both chemistry and physics.

Aviation pioneer Otto Lilienthal designed and built several novel, unpowered gliders with which he was able to demonstrate the concept of heavier-than-air flight. The 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, is known for many accomplishments, not the least of which is guiding the nation through the Civil War. One of his achievements that is little known is his success as an inventor.

He is the only U. Jeanie Low of Houston, Texas created her best known invention, the Kiddie Stool, while she was still in kindergarten. Bacterial infections affect hundreds of thousands of people in the United States every year, and in some cases, they are serious, even fatal. Though scientists have developed a number of effective antibiotics to fight off harmful bacteria, many of these microscopic organisms have developed resistance to such medications. This, combined with the fact that developing antibiotic drugs is extremely expensive and resource-intensive for drug companies, means that the overall effectiveness of this class of medications could be poised to decline.

Biologist, inventor, and engineer Lee Rybeck Lynd has devoted his career to developing processes for improving the feasibility of using biofuels as a mainstream, alternate energy source. For thousands of years, human beings have watched birds soar through the skies and dreamed of one day flying in a similar fashion, using their own power. Professor Albert Macovski has been called "the most inventive person" at Stanford University. Macovski has won this high praise by establishing himself, with over patents in the last 50 years, as the nation's foremost authority on computerized imaging systems, especially those used in medicine.

Akhil Madhani invented robotic instruments for use in fields as diverse as surgery and space exploration when he was a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Educated in physics at the technical school in Leghorn, Marconi had, by the age of 20, become very interested in the works of Heinrich Herz, who had discovered and first produced radio waves in Marconi was convinced that communication among people was possible via wireless radio signaling. George D. Margolin has been a professional inventor and product developer for over 30 years, with successes in the realms of optics, computers, commerce, and medicine.

Chocolate lovers around the world have none other than Forrest E. Mars, Sr.


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Mason, Jr. Thomas H. The most impressive was a computer interface system that takes virtual reality to a new level. In , biotechnologist Jennie P. Mather set out to challenge conventional thinking when it comes to advanced pharmaceutical development. With nearly three decades of experience in cell biology research behind her, she embarked on her own path to launch a company to produce novel therapeutics targeted toward specific diseases. She used a process that closely analyzes the surface of a disease cell to develop antibodies that disable proteins on the surface of cells that are necessary for the disease to grow.

She hopes that drugs created using this process will not only have a relatively fast development time, but will also become effective treatments for a variety of cancers, such as breast, prostate, lung, colon, pancreatic, and ovarian cancers. The enterprising youngster showed early mechanical aptitude, and at just ten years old, he was already working in the machine shops that his father supervised. When he was 19, he left Surinam to sail the world and later to seek work in the United States.

In , he settled in Philadelphia. John William Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert are the scientists credited with the invention of the Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer ENIAC , the first general-purpose electronic digital computer, which was completed in In the guitar world, inventor Ted McCarty made his mark as an innovative instrument designer during the s and early s as the President of Gibson, Inc. Cyrus McCormick, the "Father of Modern Agriculture," made one of the most significant contributions to the United States' prosperity when he invented the horse-drawn reaper in Frequently, if people want to make sure to get "the real thing" — a quality product or service — they ask for "the real McCoy.

Soon, he was assembling parts and creating new toys from objects that he found around the house. By the time he finished high school, he had created three robots on his own. John McTammany has been credited with the invention of the player piano. He also patented several devices that were important to the development of automatic piano construction. However, it has been said that credit must be shared with many others, both in the United States and in Europe, for having contributed important principles and components to what became a very popular distraction during the early part of the 20th century.

Austin Meggitt's invention, the Glove and Battie Caddy, solves a problem that has plagued young baseball and softball players for decades: how to transport their gear when riding their bikes. Robert M. Fascinated by technology and gadgets as a child, he already knew at the age of ten that he wanted to become an electrical engineer and attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT. Miller, who earned more than patents related to coaster technology and ride safety.

Geologist and engineer John Milne is known as one of the most significant contributors to the understanding and evaluation of earthquakes. There is room for technological improvement in all types of fields, including the arts. In , Eliza Gaynor Minden designed and developed the Gaynor Minden pointe shoe, which provided a more functional, durable, and comfortable shoe for ballerinas around the world.

Before there were airplanes, man was able to experience the wonder of floating high above the earth with a somewhat simpler invention: the hot air balloon. Robert Moog was born in in New York City. When he was a child, his mother encouraged him to study music, so he learned to play the piano. Meanwhile, he spent a great deal of time with his father as well, with whom he liked to tinker with electronics. By the time Moog had reached his teenage years, these two interests had converged, and building simple novelty electronic musical instruments had become a hobby.

Because of repeated incidents of firefighters being overcome by smoke when attempting to put out fires in his hometown of Cleveland, Ohio, Garrett Morgan wanted to do something to help. Young inventor Krysta Morlan demonstrated talent in the field of assistive technology with her inventions and her initiative as a college student.

Diagnosed at three years old with a mild form of cerebral palsy, Morlan knew the challenges posed to those with physical disabilities. When she was in ninth grade, the Vacaville, California native underwent close to a dozen surgical procedures to help improve her condition. After enduring hip to ankle casts in the California heat with no way to alleviate the pain and discomfort, she invented her first device, the "Cast Cooler. Samuel Finley Breese Morse, inventor of several improvements to the telegraph, was born in Charlestown, Mass. As a student at Yale College, Morse became interested in both painting and in the developing subject of electricity.

She quickly found that caring for a newborn required innovative solutions to problems for which helpful products did not exist. She was surprised to find, for example, that attachable blankets did not exist for baby carriers and car seats for children over one year old.

Canadia born James Naismith, inventor of the game of basketball, was born on November 6, in Almonte, Ontario. He and his three siblings were orphaned when both parents died of typhoid fever in More than a decade of research led to his development of the blue light-emitting diode, or LED, which has enabled the creation of the white-light-emitting LED, the first viable, ultra-efficient successor to the incandescent light bulb invented by Thomas Edison in Few would deny that the first thing they do when the alarm clock goes off in the morning is to hit that snooze button and go right back to sleep.

The field of tissue engineering has transformed many areas of medicine, particularly reconstructive surgery and burn treatment, since it began in the early s. Naughton, have made incredible procedures possible that earlier generations could have barely foreseen. As a result, thousands of patients worldwide now have less painful, more powerful treatment options for a range of afflictions from heart disease to diabetes to severe burns and torn ligaments.

Mathematician John von Neumann was born in Budapest, Hungary in As a very young child, he impressed the people around him with his incredible memory. It was said that he could memorize pages of the phone book and divide 8-digit numbers in his head by the age of six. He was recognized as the best math student in Hungary in In , he received his bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Technische Hochschule in Zurich, and in , he completed his doctoral degree in mathematics at the University of Budapest.

For virtually any man, woman, or child born after , the Muppets are sure to be familiar characters. For millions, the Muppets have provided hours of entertainment along with many fond memories. Isaac Newton was one of an elite group of individuals considered to have possessed one of the greatest scientific minds in history. His achievements span a variety of fields he considered connected, including mathematics, chemistry, optics, and philosophy.

His discoveries, which encompass fundamental principles that formed the basis for Calculus, laws of motion, gravitational theory, and theories of color, have clearly stood the test of time. Blairstown, Iowa native George Nissen invented a device loved by tumblers, athletes, adults, and children around the world — the trampoline. He holds more than 40 patents related to sports and fitness and has been a tireless promoter of the trampoline and its myriad uses throughout his life.

Nonetheless, his aptitude for electronics and entrepreneurship and his enthusiasm for creating new technologies has taken him to the top of his game. After graduating from college in , she searched for work as a sales associate at New York City department stores. Despite her qualifications, stores rejected her from front-counter jobs because of her blemish. This toy is none other than the instantly recognizable Kewpie doll. The doll and merchandise bearing its likeness remain collectibles to this day.

Julius Robert Oppenheimer is likely the first name that comes to mind when one mentions the atomic bomb. He is credited with the creation of the devastating device in the early s, a version of which was used in two instances during World War II in the summer of Bombs were dropped on two Japanese cities, and Japan surrendered shortly thereafter.

Jewell L. Osterholm, M. It was based on the principle that brain food is relatively simple, composed mainly of oxygen, glucose, and amino acids. Some inventions appear small at first glance, but often a closer look proves a simple device can have a revolutionary impact. A common cause of heart attack and stroke is restricted blood flow caused by atherosclerosis, or clogged arteries. Millions who suffer from this condition have been able to avoid coronary bypass surgery and evade heart attack, stroke and even premature death thanks to a revolutionary, implantable device, the balloon expandable stent, developed over nearly a decade by Julio C.

His mother passed away when he and his two sisters were very young, and their father became solely responsible for their upbringing. He was a judge in Clermont, who moved the family to Paris in , in part to further the education of his son, who was showing early potential for academic brilliance. Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, in Dole, a small town in eastern France. As a youngster he showed talent as an artist, but no special ability in school.

This changed however, in his high school years, as he became more and more interested in scientific subjects. In , he completed his Bachelor of Science degree at the Besancon College Royal de la Franche with honors in physics, mathematics, and Latin. He moved on to the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris to study physics and chemistry. He received his doctoral degree in There are many types of lasers, which vary in strength, efficiency and utility. Perhaps the most useful of them all is the carbon dioxide laser, invented by Kumar Patel in As a child she learned to appreciate nature, especially plants, after numerous trips to the countryside with her family.

Later she developed an interest in the microscopic organisms in water. She received her MS degree from the University of Virginia two years later. One would be hard-pressed to find a guitar fan unfamiliar with the name Les Paul, who not only established himself as a renowned, pacesetting musician with a signature sound, but also contributed a number of advances in guitar design and recording processes, most notably with his invention of the solid-body electric guitar.

While a lucky few did find their fortunes in the gold itself, others found it through opportunities in related services and businesses, such as lodging, transportation, engineering and mining equipment. Pharmacist John Stith Pemberton created the original formula in Born in in Knoxville, Georgia, Pemberton earned his medical degree at age 19 and practiced some medicine and surgery early in his career. He later opened his own drug store in Columbus, Georgia. During the s scientists and programmers were working hard on assembling the networks and technology to enable what we now know as the Internet.

Engineer and mathematician Radia Perlman was one of very few women involved in process at that time. Though his name may be unfamiliar to some, the remarkable achievements that scientist and inventor Dr. Sidney Pestka has contributed to the medical and biotechnology fields have touched the lives of millions around the world and helped patients battle a number of serious illnesses and diseases, from cancer to multiple sclerosis to dozens of viruses.

It may sound like a trivial problem to some, but many women know that when you put a bra in the washing machine you have a pretty good chance of seeing it come out with unsightly lumps and bumps, punctures, and wrinkles that are virtually impossible to get out. When that happens, women are forced to wear the bras with their imperfections, or simply toss them out and hit the store for replacements. Van Phillips, inventor of the Flex-Foot brand of prosthetic feet and limbs, turned a tragic moment into a revolutionary business that has helped thousands around the world lead more normal, active lives.

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Gregory Goodwin Pincus was one of the creators of the first effective birth-control pill. However, Pincus credited two uncles, both agricultural scientists, as responsible for his early interest in research. Mothers and babies around the world enjoy the soothing, bouncing motion of an ingenious swing known as the Jolly Jumper, invented by Olivia Poole in Anyone who's a fan of television infomercials has undoubtedly spotted inventor Ron Popeil peddling his wares on air sometime during the last couple of decades.

Popeil, whose inventions have earned him more than a billion dollars in retail sales, has created a range of consumer products ranging from cooking tools to hairspray. Biotechnologist Emilie Porter was fortunate enough to get involved in research very early on in her education. This was the factor, she says, that helped her accomplish an important discovery in her field while still a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin.

The now taken-for-granted system of voicemail was made possible by the work of Danish inventor Valdemar Poulsen, born on November 23, in Copenhagen. As a child he was interested in art and physics, but not mathematics, much to the dismay of his parents. They wanted him to become a doctor, but he left medical school without graduating and at age 24 took a position at the Copenhagen Telephone Company. He dropped out of school at age 14, but he had a natural knack for business.

He began working with a merchant and then took on an apprenticeship in cabinet-making at age As a child he differed from his scholarly brother and sister in that he much preferred to tinker with mechanical components than to read or study. He began an apprenticeship with the gun maker Remington Arms at age 14 where he acquired the skills of an expert metalworker and gunmaker.

By , he had begun inventing and marketing devices on his own, including his first successful creation, the extension ladder. Jacob Rabinow was born in Kharkov, Russia and emigrated with his family during the Revolution and arrived via China to New York in These materials comprised a laboratory of sorts as he worked on a prototype for what would become known as the fog screen.

The device produces a magical illusion of giving a person the ability to walk through walls. Grote Reber was born in Chicago on December 22, While still a student, he became very interested in radio astronomy — in he learned about. An impressive student, she graduated from high school early and enrolled at Syracuse University as a chemistry major. Just three years later, she also completed a doctoral degree at Syracuse and received a PhD in organic chemistry in at the age of When Kelly Reinhart was six-years old, she had an idea that would launch her into a kind of life that few children get to experience: that of a successful entrepreneur, inventor, and V.

The entrepreneurial spirit clearly runs in the Reynolds family: Richard S. In fact, the younger Reynolds worked for his uncle during the summers of his youth, until in , he started his own business, the U. Foil Co. Few Americans have made such a sweeping contribution to the process and business of inventing as Robert Rines, a trailblazer in the realms of invention, education, law, and public policy.

Excitement ran high around this brave new world at the time, and more individuals wished they could have the opportunity to fly aboard or even pilot an airplane than there were opportunities to do so. Even as commercial flight began to take off, the expense was somewhat prohibitive for most. These tiny patients present a variety of challenges for the nurses and doctors who care for them; their delicate bodies need both nurturing and protection, and standard equipment can be ill-fitting or otherwise less-than-perfect at doing the job.

Most are familiar with the decades-old expression above, but few can name of the man who invented the bread-slicing machine that gave the world packaged, sliced bread in the s. Born in Kansas City in , Hazelle Hedges Rollins secured her place in history with the dedication she had to the art of puppetry. He asked her to make him another one. Rollins did so, carving a head out of wood. She instantly had an affinity for these objects and soon found herself creating lots of puppets.

She began writing plays for them and putting on shows for school kids. The mother-daughter team of Betty Rozier and Linda Vallino, of Hazelwood, Missouri, invented a simple device that makes it safer and easier for hospitals to provide patients with IVs. The device that became popular with the masses in the s was created a decade earlier by Hungarian designer Erno Rubik. Born in Budapest in , his father was an engineer and glider designer; his mother was a writer and artist. Rubik pursued sculpture for a time before studying and earning a degree in architecture in Shortly thereafter he became a teacher in the interior design department at the Academy of Applied Arts and Crafts in Budapest.

Microbiologist Benjamin A. Rubin was born in New York City in in an era when smallpox was a dreaded uncontrolled disease. At that time, the affliction was killing more than two million people per year. Many of the most significant developments in private aircraft development over the last several decades may be attributed to aviation innovator, inventor, aeronautical engineer and entrepreneur Burt Rutan. He is a major player in alternative energy research, particularly in the area of photovoltaics, a solar power technology using solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity.

Canada native Donald Robert Sadoway has devoted much of his career to developing technology aimed at using energy and resources more efficiently in order to lessen harmful effects to the environment. Before the s, when a person suffered cardiac arrest, this generally meant death was imminent.

But surgeon and medical innovator Peter Safar changed that with his development and popularization of the procedure known as cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR. Jonas Edward Salk, developer of the first successful vaccine for polio, was born on October 28, in New York City. He was the first member of his family to attend college. He graduated from NYU in Jordan Sand was a high school senior class of at Ellendale High School in Ellendale, North Dakota who had a bright future as an environmental scientist in the making. At 18 years old, having created a number of devices related to the agricultural world, Sand was already proving that innovation can be applied not only by engineers on mechanical devices, but also to solve environmental and economic issues.

Beginning around the turn of the 19th century, a movement toward bringing attractive design to everyday household items began to gain momentum. A variety of artisans, manufacturers and product developers churned out a steady stream of innovative products and designs, with the aim of bringing art into everyday life and, of course, hoping to make a healthy profit.